"The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory"
Roberto Bruno and Vincenzo Carbone 
1 Introduction
1.1 What does turbulence stand for?
1.2 Dynamics vs. statistics
2 Equations and Phenomenology
2.1 The Navier–Stokes equation and the Reynolds number
2.2 The coupling between a charged fluid and the magnetic field
2.3 Scaling features of the equations
2.4 The non-linear energy cascade
2.5 The inhomogeneous case
2.6 Dynamical system approach to turbulence
2.7 Shell models for turbulence cascade
2.8 The phenomenology of fully developed turbulence: Fluid-like case
2.9 The phenomenology of fully developed turbulence: Magnetically-dominated case
2.10 Some exact relationships
2.11 Yaglom’s law for MHD turbulence
2.12 Density-mediated Elsässer variables and Yaglom’s law
2.13 Yaglom’s law in the shell model for MHD turbulence
3 Early Observations of MHD Turbulence in the Ecliptic
3.1 Turbulence in the ecliptic
3.2 Turbulence studied via Elsässer variables
4 Observations of MHD Turbulence in the Polar Wind
4.1 Evolving turbulence in the polar wind
4.2 Polar turbulence studied via Elsässer variables
5 Numerical Simulations
5.1 Local production of Alfvénic turbulence in the ecliptic
5.2 Local production of Alfvénic turbulence at high latitude
6 Compressive Turbulence
6.1 On the nature of compressive turbulence
6.2 Compressive turbulence in the polar wind
6.3 The effect of compressive phenomena on Alfvénic correlations
7 A Natural Wind Tunnel
7.1 Scaling exponents of structure functions
7.2 Probability distribution functions and self-similarity of fluctuations
7.3 What is intermittent in the solar wind turbulence? The multifractal approach
7.4 Fragmentation models for the energy transfer rate
7.5 A model for the departure from self-similarity
7.6 Intermittency properties recovered via a shell model
8 Observations of Yaglom’s Law in Solar Wind Turbulence
9 Intermittency Properties in the 3D Heliosphere: Taking a Look at the Data
9.1 Structure functions
9.2 Probability distribution functions
10 Turbulent Structures
10.1 On the statistics of magnetic field directional fluctuations
10.2 Radial evolution of intermittency in the ecliptic
10.3 Radial evolution of intermittency at high latitude
11 Solar Wind Heating by the Turbulent Energy Cascade
11.1 Dissipative/dispersive range in the solar wind turbulence
12 The Origin of the High-Frequency Region
12.1 A dissipation range
12.2 A dispersive range
13 Two Further Questions About Small-Scale Turbulence
13.1 Whistler modes scenario
13.2 Kinetic Alfvén waves scenario
13.3 Where does the fluid-like behavior break down in solar wind turbulence?
13.4 What physical processes replace “dissipation” in a collisionless plasma?
14 Conclusions and Remarks
A Some Characteristic Solar Wind Parameters
B Tools to Analyze MHD Turbulence in Space Plasmas
B.1 Statistical description of MHD turbulence
B.2 Spectra of the invariants in homogeneous turbulence
B.3 Introducing the Elsässer variables
C Wavelets as a Tool to Study Intermittency
D Reference Systems
D.1 Minimum variance reference system
D.2 The mean field reference system
E On-board Plasma and Magnetic Field Instrumentation
E.1 Plasma instrument: The top-hat
E.2 Measuring the velocity distribution function
E.3 Computing the moments of the velocity distribution function
E.4 Field instrument: The flux-gate magnetometer
F Spacecraft and Datasets

Change Log

Major update published on 8 June 2011

One of the key features of Living Reviews is that its articles are kept up-to-date by their authors. A major update is considered a new publication. As such it is again subject to peer review and is issued with a new publication number.

Global description:

Sections 2.11, 2.12, and 2.13 have been added and refer to Yaglom’s law. Sections 3.1.1 has been modified to include recent results on spectral index measurements for velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. Section 3.1.2 “Experimental evaluation of Reynolds number in the solar wind” is new. Section 3.1.3 has been slightly modified to describe the updated version of Figure 29. Section 3.2.1 has been extended to include new results on magnetic structures. Section 10.1 “On the statistics of magnetic field directional fluctuations” is new. Section 8 is new and deals with “Observations of Yaglom’s Law in Solar Wind Turbulence”. Section 11, 12 and 13 have been added and deal with small scale dissipative/dispersive range and turbulent heating The last Section 14 “Conclusions and Remarks” has been slightly modified to comment on some of the new results reported in this updated version. Appendix F has been slightly updated. 20 new figures have been added. The number of references has increased from 296 to 439.

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