
Abstract 
1 
Introduction 

1.1 
What does turbulence stand for? 

1.2 
Dynamics vs.
statistics 
2 
Equations and Phenomenology 

2.1 
The Navier–Stokes equation
and the Reynolds number 

2.2 
The coupling between a charged fluid and the
magnetic field 

2.3 
Scaling features of the equations 

2.4 
The nonlinear energy
cascade 

2.5 
The inhomogeneous case 

2.6 
Dynamical system approach to
turbulence 

2.7 
Shell models for turbulence cascade 

2.8 
The phenomenology
of fully developed turbulence: Fluidlike case 

2.9 
The phenomenology of
fully developed turbulence: Magneticallydominated case 

2.10 
Some exact
relationships 

2.11 
Yaglom’s law for MHD turbulence 

2.12 
Densitymediated
Elsässer variables and Yaglom’s law 

2.13 
Yaglom’s law in the shell
model for MHD turbulence 
3 
Early Observations of MHD Turbulence
in the Ecliptic 

3.1 
Turbulence in the ecliptic 

3.2 
Turbulence studied via
Elsässer variables 
4 
Observations of MHD Turbulence in the Polar
Wind 

4.1 
Evolving turbulence in the polar wind 

4.2 
Polar turbulence
studied via Elsässer variables 
5 
Numerical Simulations 

5.1 
Local
production of Alfvénic turbulence in the ecliptic 

5.2 
Local production
of Alfvénic turbulence at high latitude 
6 
Compressive Turbulence 

6.1 
On
the nature of compressive turbulence 

6.2 
Compressive turbulence in
the polar wind 

6.3 
The effect of compressive phenomena on Alfvénic
correlations 
7 
A Natural Wind Tunnel 

7.1 
Scaling exponents of structure
functions 

7.2 
Probability distribution functions and selfsimilarity of
fluctuations 

7.3 
What is intermittent in the solar wind turbulence? The
multifractal approach 

7.4 
Fragmentation models for the energy transfer
rate 

7.5 
A model for the departure from selfsimilarity 

7.6 
Intermittency
properties recovered via a shell model 
8 
Observations of Yaglom’s Law in
Solar Wind Turbulence 
9 
Intermittency Properties in the 3D Heliosphere:
Taking a Look at the Data 

9.1 
Structure functions 

9.2 
Probability distribution
functions 
10 
Turbulent Structures 

10.1 
On the statistics of magnetic field
directional fluctuations 

10.2 
Radial evolution of intermittency in the
ecliptic 

10.3 
Radial evolution of intermittency at high latitude 
11 
Solar Wind
Heating by the Turbulent Energy Cascade 

11.1 
Dissipative/dispersive range in
the solar wind turbulence 
12 
The Origin of the HighFrequency Region 

12.1 
A
dissipation range 

12.2 
A dispersive range 
13 
Two Further Questions About
SmallScale Turbulence 

13.1 
Whistler modes scenario 

13.2 
Kinetic Alfvén
waves scenario 

13.3 
Where does the fluidlike behavior break down in solar
wind turbulence? 

13.4 
What physical processes replace “dissipation” in a
collisionless plasma? 
14 
Conclusions and Remarks 
15 
Acknowledgments 
A 
Some
Characteristic Solar Wind Parameters 
B 
Tools to Analyze MHD Turbulence
in Space Plasmas 

B.1 
Statistical description of MHD turbulence 

B.2 
Spectra
of the invariants in homogeneous turbulence 

B.3 
Introducing the Elsässer
variables 
C 
Wavelets as a Tool to Study Intermittency 
D 
Reference
Systems 

D.1 
Minimum variance reference system 

D.2 
The mean field reference
system 
E 
Onboard Plasma and Magnetic Field Instrumentation 

E.1 
Plasma
instrument: The tophat 

E.2 
Measuring the velocity distribution
function 

E.3 
Computing the moments of the velocity distribution
function 

E.4 
Field instrument: The fluxgate magnetometer 
F 
Spacecraft
and Datasets 

References 

Footnotes 

Updates 

Figures 

Tables 