sidebar

List of Footnotes

1 Note that the famous work by Castagnoli and Lal (1980Jump To The Next Citation Point) contains an inconsistency in the force-field formula – see details in Usoskin et al. (2005Jump To The Next Citation Point),
2 The concept of VDM assumes that the geomagnetic dipole is centered at the planet’s center and its axis is aligned with the true magnetic axis.
3 Isotope’s activity quantifies (a) in the radiometric 14 technique its decay rate, and is usually given in terms of disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon, and (b) in the AMS technique, the 14C/12C ratio, all normalized to the standard.
4 This is not a prediction of future solar activity, but only a statistical estimate.