Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations"
by
David F. Webb and Timothy A. Howard 

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 Properties of CMEs
2.1 CME identification and measurement
2.2 Frequency of occurrence
2.3 Halo CMEs
2.4 Locations, widths, geometry
2.5 Kinematics
2.6 Masses and energies
3 Signatures of CME Origins
3.1 Coronal streamers and blowouts
3.2 Flares
3.3 Erupting prominences
3.4 Coronal dimming to arcade formation
3.5 Coronal waves
3.6 Shock waves and SEPs
3.7 Evidence of reconnection and current sheets
3.8 “Problem” and “stealth” CMEs
3.9 Precursors of CMEs
4 CME Models
5 CMEs in the Heliosphere
5.1 Remote sensing of CMEs at large distances from the Sun
5.2 Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations
5.3 Heliospheric imagers
6 Conclusions
6.1 Summary
6.2 Unsolved problems
7 Acknowledgments
Open References References
Updates
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