Partial ionization affects the induction equation, which contains additional terms due to the presence of neutrals and a non-zero resistivity (Soler et al., 2009d). These terms account for the processes of ohmic diffusion, with coefficient ; ambipolar diffusion, with coefficient ; and Hall’s magnetic diffusion, with coefficient . They govern collisions between the different plasma species. Ohmic diffusion is mainly due to electron-ion collisions and produces magnetic diffusion parallel to the magnetic field lines; ambipolar diffusion is mostly caused by ion-neutral collisions and Hall’s effect is enhanced by ion-neutral collisions since they tend to decouple ions from the magnetic field, while electrons remain able to drift with the magnetic field (Pandey and Wardle, 2008). The ambipolar diffusivity can be expressed in terms of Cowling’s coefficient, , that accounts for diffusion perpendicular to magnetic field lines, as

with the magnetic field strength. For a fully ionized plasma, and there is no ambipolar diffusion, so magnetic diffusion is isotropic. Due to the presence of neutrals, , which means that perpendicular magnetic diffusion is much more efficient than longitudinal magnetic diffusion in a partially ionized plasma. It is important to note that even for a small relative density of neutrals.

Several studies have considered the damping of MHD waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar
atmosphere (De Pontieu et al., 2001; James et al., 2003; Khodachenko et al., 2004; Leake et al., 2005). In
the context of solar prominences, Forteza et al. (2007) derived the full set of MHD equations for a partially
ionized, one-fluid hydrogen plasma and applied them to the study of the time damping of linear, adiabatic
fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves in an unbounded prominence medium. This study was later
extended to the non-adiabatic case by including thermal conduction by neutrals and electrons and
radiative losses (Forteza et al., 2008). The main effects of partial ionization on the properties of
MHD waves manifest through a generalized Ohm’s law, which adds some extra terms in the
resistive magnetic induction equation, in comparison to the fully ionized case. Forteza et al.
(2007) considered a uniform and unbounded prominence plasma and found that ion-neutral
collisions are more important for fast waves, for which the ratio of the damping time to the
period is in the range 1 to 10^{5}, than for slow waves, for which values between 10^{4} and 10^{8}
are obtained. Fast waves are efficiently damped for moderate values of the ionization fraction,
while in a nearly fully ionized plasma, the small amount of neutrals is insufficient to damp the
perturbations.

A hydrogen plasma was considered in the above studies, but 90% of the prominence chemical composition is hydrogen and the remaining 10% is helium. The effect of including helium in the model of Forteza et al. (2008) was assessed by Soler et al. (2010b). The species present in the medium are electrons, protons, neutral hydrogen, neutral helium (He i) and singly ionized helium (He ii), while the presence of He iii is neglected (Gouttebroze and Labrosse, 2009).

The hydrogen ionization degree is characterized by , which varies between 0.5 for fully ionized hydrogen and 1 for fully neutral hydrogen. The helium ionization degree is characterized by , where and denote the relative densities of single ionized and neutral helium, respectively. Figure 48 displays as a function of the wavenumber, , for the Alfvén, fast and slow waves, and the results corresponding to several helium abundances are compared for hydrogen and helium ionization degrees of and , respectively. We can observe that the presence of helium has a minor effect on the results.

The thermal mode is a purely damped, non-propagating disturbance (), so only the damping time, , is plotted (Figure 48d). We observe that the effect of helium is different in two ranges of . For , thermal conduction is the dominant damping mechanism, so the larger the amount of helium, the shorter because of the enhanced thermal conduction by neutral helium atoms. On the other hand, radiative losses are more relevant for . In this region, the thermal mode damping time grows as the helium abundance increases. Since these variations in the damping time are very small, we again conclude that the damping time obtained in the absence of helium does not significantly change when helium is taken into account. Therefore, the inclusion of neutral or single ionized helium in partially ionized prominence plasmas does not modify the behaviour of linear, adiabatic or non-adiabatic MHD waves already found by Forteza et al. (2007) and Forteza et al. (2008).

Soler et al. (2009c) applied the equations derived by Forteza et al. (2007) to the study of MHD waves in a partially ionized filament thread modeled as an infinite cylinder with radius embedded in the solar corona (see Figure 32). As in Forteza et al. (2007), the one-fluid approximation for a hydrogen plasma was considered. The internal and external media are characterized by their densities, temperatures, and their own relative densities of neutrals, ions and electrons. The contribution of the electrons is neglected. The coronal medium is considered as fully ionized, while the ionization fraction in the prominence plasma, , is allowed to vary.

In their analysis, Soler et al. (2009c) neglected Hall’s term since it can be ignored when the plasma is magnetized, i.e., when ions and electrons are tightly bound to the magnetic field. The condition to neglect Hall’s term can be written in terms of the ion-gyrofrequency () and the ion-neutral collision time () as , which once expanded gives,

where is the ion-neutral cross-section and the neutrals number density (Leake et al., 2005; Pandey and Wardle, 2008). Using prominence conditions (, , , ), we obtain the numerical value , which fully justifies the neglect of Hall’s term. Parallel and perpendicular magnetic diffusion can be evaluated by defining the corresponding Reynolds numbers as and , where the typical velocity scale has been associated to the sound speed in the prominence, . The parallel Reynolds number is independent of the wavenumber, while the relative importance of Cowling’s diffusion increases with , the longitudinal wavenumber. In the range of observed wavelengths () both Cowling’s and ohmic diffusion could therefore be important. Soler et al. (2009c) analyzed separately the effect(s) of partial ionization in Alfvén, fast kink and slow waves.For torsional Alfvén waves, Soler et al. (2009c) found that wave propagation is constrained between two critical wavenumbers (top panels of Figure 49). These critical wavenumbers are, however, outside the range of the observed wavelengths, in which is in the range 10 – 100 and so is considerably larger than the observed damping rate. Nevertheless, a prominence ionization fraction larger than the maximum one considered here (namely ) can yield , in agreement with observations. For short wavenumbers, the values of the damping time over the period are independent of the ionization degree, while for large wavenumbers they become smaller for larger values of . This behaviour is explained in Soler et al. (2009c) by considering solutions to the dispersion relation in which one of the two possible damping mechanisms, i.e., partial ionization or ohmic dissipation, is neglected. Soler et al. (2009c) observed that ohmic diffusion dominates for small wavenumbers. Nevertheless, for large wavenumbers Cowling’s diffusion dominates over ohmic dissipation and so a larger number of neutrals decreases the damping time: the larger in the thread, the shorter and, consequently, the smaller .

The presence of critical wavenumbers is also found in the case of transverse kink waves (middle panels of Figure 49). Within the range of observed wavelengths, the phase speed closely corresponds to its ideal counterpart, , so non-ideal effects are irrelevant for wave propagation. The behaviour of the damping rate as a function of wavelength and ionization fraction is seen to closely resemble the result obtained for Alfvén waves, with in the range of observed wavelengths. Therefore, neither ohmic diffusion nor ion-neutral collisions seem to provide damping times as short as those observed for kink waves in filament threads. Only for an almost neutral plasma, with , the obtained damping rates are compatible with the observed time-scales. Just like for Alfvén waves, ohmic diffusion dominates for small wavenumbers, while ion-neutral collisions are the dominant damping mechanism for large wavenumbers.

Regarding slow waves (bottom panels of Figure 49), Soler et al. (2009c) concentrated their analysis on the radially fundamental mode with , since the behaviour of the slow mode is weakly affected by the value of the azimuthal wavenumber. Slow wave propagation is constrained by only one critical wavenumber, that strongly depends on the ionization fraction, in such a way that for below this critical wavenumber the wave is totally damped. More importantly, for large enough values of the ionization fraction, the corresponding critical wavelength lies in the range of observed wavelengths of filament oscillations. As a consequence, the slow wave might not propagate in filament threads under certain circumstances. As for the damping rate, it is found that ion-neutral collisions are a relevant damping mechanism for slow waves, since very short damping times are obtained, especially close to the critical wavenumber. By comparing the particular effects of ohmic diffusion and ion-neutral collisions, the slow mode damping is seen to be completely dominated by ion-neutral collisions. Ohmic diffusion is found to be irrelevant, since the presence of the critical wavenumber prevents slow wave propagation for small wavenumbers, where ohmic diffusion would start to dominate.

Living Rev. Solar Phys. 9, (2012), 2
http://www.livingreviews.org/lrsp-2012-2 |
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