Here, we estimate the convective electric field associated with magnetic reconnection, which possibly plays an important role in accelerating charged particles during a flare:
High-energy electrons produced by strong convective electric field could contribute to forming foot-point as well as loop-top HXR sources, as illustrated in Figure 42. Some of the high-energy electrons are not trapped near the Sun; instead they travel outward through the corona along open field lines. These electrons drive the plasma oscillation in the corona, which is observed as the type III radio bursts.
In some big flares (GOES X-class flares), solar neutron events (SNE) can be observed on the ground of the Earth. The neutrons are produced by the interaction of relativistic ions accelerated at the flare site and atomic nuclei (Watanabe et al., 2006). It is to be noted that when a large amount of electrons are accelerated simultaneously to produce a strong electron beam, a return current (a reverse current) may be generated around the electron beam to cause atmospheric heating. The effect of the return current have been studied by many authors (e.g., Karlický, 2008).
Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8, (2011), 6
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