2 Global Sunspot Structure Revisited

One of the elementary problems for sunspot models is our ignorance on the sub-photospheric morphology. We have no means to directly observe the sub-photospheric structure of sunspots. The photons that reach us originate in the photosphere, which is the transition layer between the convectively unstable interior and the convectively stable atmosphere. Knowledge about the sub-photospheric structure is expected from local helioseismology. However, current inversions techniques do not yet allow to probe the internal sunspot structure with sufficient confidence (Gizon et al., 2009Jump To The Next Citation Point; Moradi et al., 2010Jump To The Next Citation Point). Therefore, attempts to model sunspots rely on theoretical expectations and numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamics. Any model can only be tested by comparing the (photospheric) surface signatures with observations. The fundamental observational requirement of a sunspot model is that sunspots are manifested on large spatial scales and are dynamically stable.

 2.1 Sunspot time scales
 2.2 Sunspot darkness and energy transport
  2.2.1 Suppressed convection
  2.2.2 Heat flux dilution by funneling
  2.2.3 Modified convection and funneling
  2.2.4 Why there is no bright ring around a funnel-shaped spot
 2.3 Subsurface morphology
 2.4 Stability of monolithic models

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