2.5 Association with flares and filament4 eruptions

CMEs are often accompanied by solar flares, and they are thought to be signatures of the same magnetic “disease” (Harrison, 1995Jump To The Next Citation Point). There might be some CMEs which are not associated with flares (see discussions in Section 4.2). However, it should be reminded that for some of these flareless CMEs, the lack of association may be due to: (1) the source region is behind the solar limb; (2) the associated SXR flaring arcade or disk brightenings below the CME are so weak that it is not registered as a flare (Hiei et al., 1993Jump To The Next Citation Point; Wu et al., 2002Jump To The Next Citation Point; Zhou et al., 2003). On the other side, many flares are not associated with CMEs. For instance, ∼ 70% of C-class, ∼ 44% of M-class, and ∼ 10% of X-class SXR flares are not associated with CMEs (Yashiro et al., 2005; Wang and Zhang, 2007).

CMEs and filament/prominence eruptions are also strongly related (Gopalswamy et al., 2003; Jing et al., 2004Jump To The Next Citation Point, and references therein), and part of the erupting filament becomes the bright core of the CME, with the remaining part falling down to the solar surface. The association rate derived from observations depends on the observational sample and the wavelength.

The strong association between CMEs and flare/filament eruptions paved the way to construct the CMEs models from the heritage of flare and filament researches. It is now believed that, when they are associated, flares and CMEs are different aspects of one global magnetic eruption (Harrison, 1995Jump To The Next Citation Point; Forbes, 2000Jump To The Next Citation Point; Zhang et al., 2001aJump To The Next Citation Point).

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