Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Dynamo Models of the Solar Cycle"
Paul Charbonneau 

Hide Subsections

1 Introduction
1.1 Scope of review
1.2 What is a “model”?
1.3 A brief historical survey
1.4 Sunspots and the butterfly diagram
1.5 Organization of review
2 Making a Solar Dynamo Model
2.1 Magnetized fluids and the MHD induction equation
2.2 The dynamo problem
2.3 Kinematic models
2.4 Axisymmetric formulation
2.5 Boundary conditions and parity
3 Mechanisms of Magnetic Field Generation
3.1 Poloidal to toroidal
3.2 Toroidal to poloidal
4 A Selection of Representative Models
4.1 Model ingredients
4.2 α Ω mean-field models
4.3 Interface dynamos
4.4 Mean-field models including meridional circulation
4.5 Models based on shear instabilities
4.6 Models based on buoyant instabilities of sheared magnetic layers
4.7 Models based on flux tube instabilities
4.8 Babcock–Leighton models
4.9 Numerical simulations of solar dynamo action
5 Amplitude Fluctuations, Multiperiodicity, and Grand Minima
5.1 The observational evidence: An overview
5.2 Fossil fields and the 22-yr cycle
5.3 Dynamical nonlinearity
5.4 Time-delay dynamics
5.5 Stochastic forcing
5.6 Intermittency
5.7 Solar cycle predictions based on dynamo models
6 Open Questions and Current Trends
6.1 What is the primary poloidal field regeneration mechanism?
6.2 What limits the amplitude of the solar magnetic field?
6.3 Flux tubes versus diffuse fields
6.4 How constraining is the sunspot butterfly diagram?
6.5 Is meridional circulation crucial?
6.6 Is the mean solar magnetic field really axisymmetric?
6.7 What causes Maunder-type Grand Minima?
6.8 Where do we go from here?
7 Acknowledgement
Open References References