Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"The Sun’s Supergranulation"
by
Michel Rieutord and François Rincon  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 General Considerations
2.1 Solar convection
2.2 Scales in turbulent convection
2.3 The supergranulation puzzle
3 Flows at Scales Smaller than the Supergranulation
3.1 Granulation
3.2 Mesogranulation
4 Observational Results on Supergranulation
4.1 Methods
4.2 The scales of supergranulation
4.3 Intensity variations in supergranules
4.4 Supergranulation depth
4.5 Rotational properties of supergranules
4.6 Multiscale convection and magnetic fields
4.7 Conclusions
5 Theoretical Models of Supergranulation
5.1 The rotating MHD Rayleigh–Bénard convection problem
5.2 Convective origin of supergranulation
5.3 Large-scale instabilities and collective interactions
5.4 Conclusions
6 Numerical Modelling
6.1 Numerical simulations of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection
6.2 Numerical simulations of solar convection
6.3 Simulations at granulation scales
6.4 Large-scale simulations
6.5 Conclusions
7 Summary of Current Knowledge and Issues
7.1 Observations
7.2 Theory
7.3 Numerical simulations
8 Discussion and Outlook
8.1 Preliminary comments
8.2 Nonlinear MHD at large scales
8.3 Suggestions for future research
9 Acknowledgements
Open References References
Footnotes
Figures
Tables