4 Observational Results on Supergranulation

We shall now review the current observational knowledge on solar surface convection from granulation to supergranulation scales. We first introduce the main detection methods of solar surface flows (Section 4.1), which are central to the identification and characterisation of the supergranulation pattern and expose the main observational results.We then review the numerous observational findings on the scales of supergranulation (Section 4.2), the measurements of supergranulation-scale intensity variations (Section 4.3), the inferred depth of the pattern (Section 4.4), and its interactions with rotation (Section 4.5) and magnetic fields (Section 4.6). Some words of conclusion follow.

 4.1 Methods
  4.1.1 Dopplergrams
  4.1.2 Tracking
  4.1.3 Local helioseismology
 4.2 The scales of supergranulation
  4.2.1 Length scales
  4.2.2 Time scales
  4.2.3 Velocity scales
 4.3 Intensity variations in supergranules
 4.4 Supergranulation depth
 4.5 Rotational properties of supergranules
 4.6 Multiscale convection and magnetic fields
  4.6.1 Supergranulation and the magnetic network
  4.6.2 Internetwork fields
  4.6.3 The magnetic power spectrum of the quiet photosphere
  4.6.4 Supergranulation and flows in active regions
  4.6.5 Supergranulation variations over the solar cycle
 4.7 Conclusions

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