4 Individual Cycle Characteristics

Each sunspot cycle has its own characteristics. Many of these characteristics are shared by other cycles and these shared characteristics provide important information for models of the solar activity cycle. A paradigm shift in sunspot cycle studies came about when Waldmeier (1935Jump To The Next Citation Point) suggested that each cycle should be treated as an individual outburst with its own characteristics. Prior to that time, the fashion was to consider solar activity as a superposition of Fourier components. This superposition idea probably had its roots in the work of Wolf (1859) who suggested a formula based on the orbits of Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn to fit Schwabe’s data for the years 1826 to 1848.

Determining characteristics such as period and amplitude would seem simple and straight forward but the published studies show that this is not true. A prime example concerns determinations of the dates (year and month) of cycle minima. A frequently used method is to take monthly averages of the daily International Sunspot Number and to smooth these with the 13-month running mean. Unfortunately, this leaves several uncertain dates. With this method, the minimum that occurred in 1810 prior to cycle 6 could be taken as any month from April to December – all nine months had smoothed sunspot numbers of 0.0!

 4.1 Minima and maxima
 4.2 Smoothing
 4.3 Cycle periods
 4.4 Cycle amplitudes
 4.5 Cycle shape
 4.6 Rise time vs. amplitude (The Waldmeier Effect)
 4.7 Period vs. amplitude
 4.8 Active latitudes
 4.9 Active hemispheres
 4.10 Active longitudes

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