One of the key features of Living Reviews is that its articles are kept up-to-date by their authors. A major update is considered a new publication. As such it is again subject to peer review and is issued with a new publication number.
Substantially revised and updated the previous version. Added 15 figures and new Sections 4.3, 5.1.5, 5.2, 5.5, and 5.7.3. 55 new references are added.
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|A new reference to Lites (2009) has been added with regard to the new results from Hinode.|
|A cite of the review by Charbonneau (2005) is added.|
|A new reference of Orozco Suárez et al. (2007) (on the new Hinode observations) has been added to the list of references concerning the measurement of magnetic field strength of magnetic flux elements at the photosphere.|
|Added a brief discussion of the observed properties and possible origin of ephemeral regions on the photosphere. Added references: Harvey (1993), Hagenaar et al. (2008), Cattaneo et al. (2003), Bercik et al. (2005), and Schüssler (2002). Also added new observational results from Hinode on the properties of the magnetic field in the solar polar regions by Tsuneta et al. (2008).|
|A reference of Osin et al. (1999) has been added to the list of references concerning the treatment of the “enhanced inertia”.|
|Section 4.2 has been revised to add the new study by Kersalé et al. (2007). Figures 8, 9, and 10 have been added.|
|New Section 4.3 has been added to discuss the results from Vasil and Brummell (2008, 2009); Silvers et al. (2009) on the development of magnetic buoyancy instabilities in shear-generated magnetic layers. Figure 11 is added.|
|New observational results by Kosovichev and Stenflo (2008) on the evolution of tilt angles of emerging active regions have been added. New Figure 15 is added.|
|New Section 5.1.5 has been added to show the properties at the apex of an emerging loop resulting from a thin flux tube simulation. Figure 18 has been added. Two new references: Fan (2009a) and Gizon and Birch (2005) have been added.|
|New Section 5.2 has been added to point out some recent studies using local helioseismology techniques to look for thermodynamic perturbations and plasma flow signatures that may be produced by subsurface emerging flux. References of Kosovichev and Duvall Jr (2008) and Komm et al. (2009) have been added.|
|New Section 5.5 has been added to show the new results from spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations of rising flux tubes in the solar interior by Fan (2008) and by Jouve and Brun (2007). Figures 25, 26, and 27 have been added. Additional new references: Fan et al. (2009), Tian and Alexander (2009), Longcope and Welsch (2000), have also been included.|
|A new reference to Cline (2003) has been added.|
|New Section 5.7.3 has been added to discuss the new global spherical shell simulations by Jouve and Brun (2009). Figure 32 is added. A reference to the review by Miesch (2005) has also been included.|
|Added a cite of Abbett et al. (2004) with regard to the result on turbulent pumping of magnetic fields.|
|Section 8.1 has been substantially rewritten to include recent new results from realistic radiation MHD simulations of magnetoconvection. New references of Cheung et al. (2007, 2008); Martínez-Sykora et al. (2008, 2009); Rempel et al. (2009); Nordlund et al. (2009); Nagata et al. (2008); Fischer et al. (2009) have been added. Figure 35 has been added.|
|Section 8.2 has been rewritten to incorporate new studies by Magara (2008); Archontis and Hood (2008); Archontis and Török (2008); Archontis et al. (2009); Fan (2009b); Abbett (2007); Amari et al. (2008); Martínez-Sykora et al. (2008, 2009). Figures 36, 37, 38, 40 have been added. A cite of Gudiksen and Nordlund (2002) has also been added.|
|Section 9 has been rewritten to incorporate new results and new discussions. The abstract has been shortened. Additional small changes are also made in the introduction to reflect the revisions in the paper.|
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