Change Log

Major update published on 25 November 2009

One of the key features of Living Reviews is that its articles are kept up-to-date by their authors. A major update is considered a new publication. As such it is again subject to peer review and is issued with a new publication number.

Global description:

Substantially revised and updated the previous version. Added 15 figures and new Sections 4.3, 5.1.5, 5.2, 5.5, and 5.7.3. 55 new references are added.

Changes in detail:

(Click on the button to view the context.)

Update A new reference to Lites (2009) has been added with regard to the new results from Hinode.
Update A cite of the review by Charbonneau (2005Jump To The Next Citation Point) is added.
Update A new reference of Orozco Suárez et al. (2007Jump To The Next Citation Point) (on the new Hinode observations) has been added to the list of references concerning the measurement of magnetic field strength of magnetic flux elements at the photosphere.
Update Added a brief discussion of the observed properties and possible origin of ephemeral regions on the photosphere. Added references: Harvey (1993), Hagenaar et al. (2008), Cattaneo et al. (2003), Bercik et al. (2005), and Schüssler (2002). Also added new observational results from Hinode on the properties of the magnetic field in the solar polar regions by Tsuneta et al. (2008).
Update A reference of Osin et al. (1999) has been added to the list of references concerning the treatment of the “enhanced inertia”.
Update Section 4.2 has been revised to add the new study by Kersalé et al. (2007Jump To The Next Citation Point). Figures 8View Image, 9View Image, and 10View Image have been added.
Update New Section 4.3 has been added to discuss the results from Vasil and Brummell (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point2009Jump To The Next Citation Point); Silvers et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point) on the development of magnetic buoyancy instabilities in shear-generated magnetic layers. Figure 11View Image is added.
Update New observational results by Kosovichev and Stenflo (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point) on the evolution of tilt angles of emerging active regions have been added. New Figure 15View Image is added.
Update New Section 5.1.5 has been added to show the properties at the apex of an emerging loop resulting from a thin flux tube simulation. Figure 18View Image has been added. Two new references: Fan (2009aJump To The Next Citation Point) and Gizon and Birch (2005Jump To The Next Citation Point) have been added.
Update New Section 5.2 has been added to point out some recent studies using local helioseismology techniques to look for thermodynamic perturbations and plasma flow signatures that may be produced by subsurface emerging flux. References of Kosovichev and Duvall Jr (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point) and Komm et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point) have been added.
Update New Section 5.5 has been added to show the new results from spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations of rising flux tubes in the solar interior by Fan (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point) and by Jouve and Brun (2007Jump To The Next Citation Point). Figures 25Watch/download Movie, 26View Image, and 27View Image have been added. Additional new references: Fan et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point), Tian and Alexander (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point), Longcope and Welsch (2000Jump To The Next Citation Point), have also been included.
Update A new reference to Cline (2003) has been added.
Update New Section 5.7.3 has been added to discuss the new global spherical shell simulations by Jouve and Brun (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point). Figure 32View Image is added. A reference to the review by Miesch (2005Jump To The Next Citation Point) has also been included.
Update Added a cite of Abbett et al. (2004) with regard to the result on turbulent pumping of magnetic fields.
Update Section 8.1 has been substantially rewritten to include recent new results from realistic radiation MHD simulations of magnetoconvection. New references of Cheung et al. (2007Jump To The Next Citation Point2008Jump To The Next Citation Point); Martínez-Sykora et al. (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point2009Jump To The Next Citation Point); Rempel et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point); Nordlund et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point); Nagata et al. (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point); Fischer et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point) have been added. Figure 35Watch/download Movie has been added.
Update Section 8.2 has been rewritten to incorporate new studies by Magara (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point); Archontis and Hood (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point); Archontis and Török (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point); Archontis et al. (2009Jump To The Next Citation Point); Fan (2009bJump To The Next Citation Point); Abbett (2007Jump To The Next Citation Point); Amari et al. (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point); Martínez-Sykora et al. (2008Jump To The Next Citation Point2009Jump To The Next Citation Point). Figures 36View Image, 37Watch/download Movie, 38View Image, 40View Image have been added. A cite of Gudiksen and Nordlund (2002Jump To The Next Citation Point) has also been added.
Update Section 9 has been rewritten to incorporate new results and new discussions. The abstract has been shortened. Additional small changes are also made in the introduction to reflect the revisions in the paper.

Previous version:

http://www.livingreviews.org/lrsp-2004-1