Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone"
Yuhong Fan  

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1 Introduction
2 Models and Computational Approaches
2.1 The thin flux tube model
2.2 MHD simulations
3 Equilibrium Conditions of Toroidal Magnetic Fields Stored at the Base of the Solar Convection Zone
3.1 The mechanical equilibria for an isolated toroidal flux tube or an extended magnetic layer
3.2 Effect of radiative heating
4 Destabilization of a Toroidal Magnetic Field and Formation of Buoyant Flux Tubes
4.1 The buoyancy instability of isolated toroidal magnetic flux tubes
4.2 Breakup of an equilibrium magnetic layer and formation of buoyant flux tubes
4.3 Buoyancy breakup of a shear-generated magnetic layer
5 Dynamic Evolution of Emerging Flux Tubes in the Solar Convection Zone
5.1 Results from thin flux tube simulations of emerging loops
5.2 Helioseismic probing of subsurface emerging flux
5.3 Hemispheric trend of the twist in solar active regions
5.4 On the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of rising flux tubes in the solar convection zone
5.5 A further constraint on the twist of subsurface emerging tubes: results from rotating spherical-shell simulations
5.6 The rise of kink unstable magnetic flux tubes and the origin of delta-sunspots
5.7 Buoyant flux tubes in a 3D stratified convective velocity field
6 Turbulent Pumping of a Magnetic Field in the Solar Convection Zone
7 Amplification of a Toroidal Magnetic Field by Conversion of Potential Energy
8 Flux Emergence at the Surface and Post-Emergence Evolution of Subsurface Fields
8.1 Evolution in the top layer of the solar convection zone and the photosphere
8.2 Flux emergence into the solar atmosphere and the corona
8.3 Post-emergence evolution of subsurface fields
9 Summary and Discussion
9.1 Subsurface evolution of active region magnetic fields
9.2 The twist of active region magnetic fields
9.3 Active region flux emergence into the atmosphere
10 Acknowledgments
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