Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Solar Surface Convection"
by
Åke Nordlund and Robert F. Stein and Martin Asplund  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 Hydrodynamics of Solar Convection
2.1 Mass conservation
2.2 Equations of motion
2.3 Kinetic energy equation, buoyancy work, and gas pressure work
2.4 Energy transport
3 Granulation
3.1 Observational constraints
3.2 Convective driving
3.3 Scale selection
3.4 Horizontal patterns and evolution
3.5 Exploding granules
3.6 Surface entropy jump
3.7 Temperature fluctuations
3.8 Average structure
3.9 Vorticity
3.10 Shocks
3.11 Energy fluxes
3.12 Connections with mixing length recipes
4 Larger Scale Flows and Multi-Scale Convection
4.1 Mesogranulation
4.2 Supergranulation
4.3 Giant cells
4.4 Multi-scale convection
5 Spectral Line Formation
5.1 Spatially resolved lines
5.2 Spatially averaged lines
5.3 Solar abundance analysis
6 Applications to Helioseismology
6.1 Wave propagation in the convection zone
6.2 Excitation of p-modes
6.3 p-mode frequencies
6.4 p-mode line profiles
7 Interaction with Magnetic Fields
7.1 Effects of magnetic fields on convection
7.2 Center-to-limb behavior
7.3 Magnetic flux emergence
7.4 Convection as a driver of chromospheric and coronal heating
8 Current Status and Future Directions
9 Summary and Concluding Remarks
10 Acknowledgments
Open References References
Footnotes
Figures
Tables