A large number of works have studied supergranular scale flows observationally and tried to characterize them in terms of, for example, flow velocity as a function of cell size, morphology, clustering, advection of smaller scale flows, divergence and convergence, etc.; some of the most significant ones are, e.g, Deubner (1971); Muller et al. (1992); Hathaway et al. (2000); Zhao and Kosovichev (2003); Del Moro et al. (2004); DeRosa and Toomre (2004) and Meunier et al. (2007).
Numerical hydro- and MHD-simulations, with realistic equations of state and radiative energy transfer, are now reaching the scale of supergranulation (Rieutord et al., 2002; Stein et al., 2006a, 2005, 2006b; Ustyugov, 2006; Stein et al., 2007b; Ustyugov, 2007, 2008), and it is thus becoming possible to make quantitative comparisons between observations and simulations. A great benefit of this approach is that if a good match is obtained between the numerical simulations and observations, one may with some confidence use the numerical simulations as proxies or predictions of the subsurface and small scale structure. This allows, e.g., local helioseismology techniques to be further improved and calibrated (Georgobiani et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2007a; Georgobiani et al., 2007; Birch et al., 2007).
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