Although some of the properties of solar convection may appear strange and unexpected at first, especially in comparison to local laboratory and atmospheric hydrodynamics settings, they of course follow rigorously from the laws of physics, which in the fluid approximations are the laws of compressible hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. These laws form the basis for numerical modeling, but equally importantly also allow a qualitative and semi-quantitative understanding. We therefore start out by writing down these laws, in forms suitable for the discussion (as well as for computational work in some cases).

2.1 Mass conservation

2.2 Equations of motion

2.3 Kinetic energy equation, buoyancy work, and gas pressure work

2.4 Energy transport

2.4.1 Radiative energy transfer

2.4.2 Equation of state

2.4.3 Convective and kinetic energy fluxes

2.2 Equations of motion

2.3 Kinetic energy equation, buoyancy work, and gas pressure work

2.4 Energy transport

2.4.1 Radiative energy transfer

2.4.2 Equation of state

2.4.3 Convective and kinetic energy fluxes

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