Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Solar Interior Rotation and its Variation"
by
Rachel Howe  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 Acoustic Modes
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Differential rotation and rotational splitting
2.3 Spherical harmonics and leakage
2.4 Estimating rotation properties directly from coefficients
3 Inversion Basics
3.1 The inversion problem
3.2 Averaging kernels
3.3 Inversion errors
3.4 Regularized least squares
3.5 Optimally localized averaging
3.6 Other methods
3.7 Limitations
4 Observations: A Brief Historical Overview
5 The Core and Radiative Interior
5.1 The oblateness controversy
5.2 Early low-degree helioseismic results
5.3 Resolved-Sun measurements
5.4 The SCLERA modes
5.5 Low-degree acoustic mode splittings 1988 – 2002
5.6 Pitfalls of low-degree splitting measurements
5.7 A new millennium for low-degree helioseismology
5.8 Summary of the acoustic-mode results
5.9 Gravity modes
6 The Tachocline
6.1 Observations
6.2 Models and the tachocline
7 Rotation in the Bulk of the Convection Zone
7.1 Observational history
7.2 The “polar jet”
7.3 GONG/MDI comparison
7.4 Slanted contours
7.5 Polar rotation
7.6 Models and rotation in the convection zone
8 The Near-Surface Shear
9 The Torsional Oscillation
9.1 The torsional oscillation before helioseismology
9.2 Early helioseismic measurements
9.3 Recent results
9.4 Local helioseismology and the torsional oscillation
9.5 Models of the torsional oscillation
10 Tachocline Variations
10.1 The 1.3 year signal
10.2 Tachocline jets
10.3 Angular momentum variations
11 Summary and Discussion
12 Acknowledgements
Open References References
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