List of Footnotes

1 Note that the famous work by Castagnoli and Lal (1980Jump To The Next Citation Point) contains an inconsistency in the force-field formula – see details in Usoskin et al. (2005aJump To The Next Citation Point),
2 The concept of VDM assumes that the geomagnetic dipole is centered at the planet’s center and its axis is aligned with the true magnetic axis.
3 The concept of VADM assumes that the centered geomagnetic dipole is always aligned with the geographical axis.
4 Isotope’s activity quantifies its decay rate and is usually given in terms of disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon.
5 This is not a prediction of future solar activity, but only a statistical estimate.