Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"A History of Solar Activity over Millennia"
by
Ilya G. Usoskin  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 Solar Activity: Concept and Observations
2.1 The concept of solar activity
2.2 Indices of solar activity
2.3 Solar activity observations in the pre-telescopic epoch
2.4 The solar cycle and its variations
2.5 Summary
3 The Proxy Method of Past Solar-Activity Reconstruction
3.1 The physical basis of the method
3.2 Radioisotope 14C
3.3 Cosmogenic isotope 10Be
3.4 Towards a quantitative physical model
3.5 Solar activity reconstructions
3.6 Verification of reconstructions
3.7 Summary
4 Variability of Solar Activity Over Millennia
4.1 The overall activity level
4.2 Quasi-periodicities and characteristic times
4.3 Grand minima of solar activity
4.4 Grand maxima of solar activity
4.5 Related implications
4.6 Summary
5 Solar Energetic Particles in the Past
5.1 Lunar and meteoritic rocks
5.2 Nitrates in polar ice
5.3 Summary
6 Conclusions
7 Acknowledgements
Open References References
Footnotes
Updates
Figures
Tables