4 Variability of Solar Activity Over Millennia

Several reconstructions of solar activity on multi-millennial timescales have been performed recently using physics-based models (see Section 3) from measurements of 14C in tree rings and 10Be in polar ice. The validity of these models for the last few centuries was discussed in Section 3.6. In this section we discuss the temporal variability of thus-reconstructed solar activity on a longer scale.

 4.1 The overall activity level
 4.2 Quasi-periodicities and characteristic times
 4.3 Grand minima of solar activity
  4.3.1 The Maunder minimum
  4.3.2 Grand minima on a multi-millennial timescale
 4.4 Grand maxima of solar activity
  4.4.1 The modern episode of active sun
  4.4.2 Grand maxima on a multi-millennial timescale
 4.5 Related implications
  4.5.1 Theoretical constrains
  4.5.2 Solar-terrestrial relations
  4.5.3 Other issues
 4.6 Summary

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