Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Flare Observations"
Arnold O. Benz  

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1 Introduction
1.1 Detection and definition
1.2 Brief history of flare observations
1.3 The phases of flares
1.4 The big picture
1.5 Organization of review
2 Energy Release in a Coupled Solar Atmosphere
2.1 Flares and photospheric field configuration
2.2 Geometry of hard X-ray emissions
2.3 Return current
2.4 Neupert effect
2.5 Standard flare model
2.6 Evaporation of chromospheric material
2.7 Deviations from standard flare model
3 Flare Geometry
3.1 Geometry of the coronal magnetic field
3.2 Coronal hard X-ray sources
3.3 Intermediate thin-thick target coronal sources
3.4 Location of particle acceleration
3.5 Energetic ions
3.6 Thermal flare
4 Energy Budget
4.1 Non-thermal electron energy
4.2 Thermal energy
4.3 Energy in waves
4.4 Other energies
4.5 Energy input into the corona
5 Signatures of Energy Release
5.1 Coronal hard X-ray signatures
5.2 Soft-hard-soft behavior in hard X-rays
5.3 Radio emissions from the acceleration region
6 Acceleration Processes
6.1 Electron acceleration theories
6.2 Comparing theories with observations
7 Conclusions
8 Acknowledgements
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