The conversion of magnetic energy into accelerated particles can be accomplished by several processes. It is likely that more than one occurs during a flare and its secondary effects. The most widely discussed can be grouped into 3 types (e.g., Melrose, 1990; Benz, 2002):
The preferred but not generally accepted acceleration model for solar flares is stochastic acceleration by the magnetic field component of low-frequency waves (Miller et al., 1997; Schlickeiser and Miller, 1998; Petrosian et al., 2006). Particles near Cerenkov resonance () are mirrored by the waves. The process is known as Transit-Time Damping of waves. It acts as a diffusion process of the particle distribution f(p) in momentum space, described by the Fokker–Planck equation
The diffusion coefficients Dij and Fi contain the physics: the action of accelerating waves and decelerating Coulomb collisions.
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