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7 Conclusions

Flares may be considered to result from the loss of equilibrium in magnetic configurations. Although reconnection is a general phenomenon, it occurs in an impulsive way only in the corona, where collisions are rare and thus the plasma is highly conductive. Regular flares must be considered as extreme phenomena of the continuous dynamics of the corona. Radio noise storms (type I bursts) and meter wave type III bursts hint at activity in the high corona that is not yet accessible to other wavelengths and is prone to surprises.

Therefore, flares should not be considered exceptional catastrophes that occur rarely and mostly during solar maximum. Flare-like brightenings, called nanoflares, occur in the quiet corona at a rate of at least a few thousand per second. Is the corona heated by flares? It may well be that the impulsive processes in the coronal plasma related to sudden changes in resistivity are the cause of the corona. We cannot answer this question definitively, however, as long as we do not understand how much energy flares deposit into the corona in the various possible ways. Furthermore, the corona below 20,000 km above the photosphere, including the transition region, is not well explored in flare research. It is also the place where most of the coronal heating occurs. This region will soon become accessible to white light coronagraphs and high-temperature line observations. The future of flare research will also profit from spatial resolution in decimetric radio waves.

Regular flares are not two of a kind, and each flare has individual features. For this reason, it is not surprising that observations at various wavelengths do not correlate in a simple manner as predicted by a simple scenario. The fact, that every flare appears to be different, must be taken as evidence that coronal dynamics has many degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, recent observations in X-rays and EUV allow identifying the magnetic topologies, confirming the general scenario of reconnection. They have shown that various groups of flares exist and have greatly contributed to our ever growing understanding of coronal phenomena.

Flares consist of a series of processes, starting with energy build-up in the corona and ending by restructuring the magnetic configuration and releasing magnetic energy. The processes include reconnection, anomalous resistivity, efficient particle acceleration, particle propagation, coronal and chromospheric heating, evaporation, mass loss, high-frequency waves and MHD oscillations, as well as various emission mechanisms. All these processes are important issues in astrophysics and worth studying for their own. They all have seen significant progress in the past decades and will be addressed by the new observing facilities planned and in construction. A major impact can be expected from simultaneous imaging observations in practically all wavelengths. They will greatly contribute to the growing physical understanding of solar flares in the near future.


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