List of Tables

Table 1:
Summary of routes through which solar variability may influence the climate of the lower atmosphere.
Table 2:
Multiple regression analysis of the surface Northern Annular Mode (NAM) (in winter) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM). The annular modes are the first empirical orthogonal functions of 90-day low-pass filtered anomalies, poleward of 20° in each hemisphere, of 1000 hPa geopotential height in normalised units. Positive values indicate a stronger equator-to-pole temperature gradient and more zonal flow. Columns show regression coefficients for linear trend (N.H. only), stratospheric chlorine (S.H. only), El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO), volcanic (stratospheric) aerosol loading, solar variability (10.7 cm index) and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Sol*QBO indicates that an index composed of a product of the solar and QBO indices was used in place of those two factors individually. The data cover the period 1958 – 2001. Colours indicate the statistical significance levels of the values, derived using a Student’s t-test: 99%, 95%, 90%, 80%, < 80%. From Haigh and Roscoe (2006).
Table 3:
A summary of published estimates of solar radiative forcing. 1st column: reference; 2nd: nominal solar variability; 3rd and 4th: solar UV radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere and at the tropopause; 5th solar-induced ozone change; 6th, 7th and 8th: impact of ozone change on shortwave and longwave components of radiative forcing and the net effect; 9th: percentage amplification of solar forcing due to change in ozone.