8 Space Weather Effects

The dynamic processes associated with the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes can have significant effects in the near-Earth space environment, in the atmosphere, and on the Earth’s surface (Lanzerotti, 2001a). As our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems that are vulnerable to electromagnetic disturbances and bombardment by energetic electrons and ions, understanding these processes is important both for the design and maintenance of these systems. Figure 22View Image graphically illustrates the chain of events leading to space weather effects on ground.

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Figure 22: Illustration of the chain of events from the Sun to the Earth related to ground-based space weather effects (courtesy Teemu Makinen/Finnish Meteorological Institute).
 8.1 Effects in the magnetosphere
 8.2 Effects in the ionosphere
 8.3 Effects in the atmosphere
 8.4 Effects on ground

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