4.5 SEPs and space weather

The SEP fluxes from flares and CME shocks affect space weather in two main aspects. 1) The relativistic proton fluxes can lead to dangerous radiation doses to unprotected technical systems and astronauts. 2) The fluxes of energetic protons impact the Earth’s middle atmospheric polar caps by producing enhanced ionizations, excitations, dissociations of atmospheric atoms and molecules. That causes, e.g., ozone depletions in the polar upper stratosphere (Jackman et al., 2005Rohen et al., 2005). There are some other relevant articles in the special editions of Geophys. Res. Lett. and J. Geophys. Res., see External Linkhttp://www.agu.org/journals/ss/VIOLCONN1/.

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