4.4 The acceleration of SEPs

The sudden release of huge amounts of energy in flares and CMEs is an issue with many unsolved problems. One of them concerns the acceleration of electrons and ions to such extremely high energies. From the manifold observations discussed above we have already many hints about the mechanisms involved. On the other hand, these observations will help to decide on whether a theoretical model is correct or not. In this review, I will not elaborate on this multi-faceted subject and rather leave it to other reviews to come. In the meantime, the interested reader may wish to study the articles in the book by Klein (2003), in particular the one by Kliem et al. (2003).
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