Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Kinetic Physics of the Solar Corona and Solar Wind"
Eckart Marsch  

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1 Introduction
1.1 Scope of the article and previous reviews
1.2 The importance of kinetic physics
1.3 Main types and solar sources of the solar wind
2 Particle Velocity Distributions
2.1 General considerations
2.2 Solar wind electrons
2.3 Solar wind protons and alpha particles
2.4 Solar wind heavy ions
3 Kinetic Description of Corona and Solar Wind
3.1 Basic energetics of coronal expansion
3.2 Collisional conditions in the corona and solar wind
3.3 The exospheric paradigm and related models
3.4 The failure to heat chromosphere or corona by collisions
3.5 Dissipation of plasma waves in solar corona and solar wind
3.6 Basics of Vlasov–Boltzmann theory
3.7 Vlasov–Boltzmann equation and fluid theory
4 Transport in Solar Corona and Solar Wind
4.1 Transport theory in collisional plasma
4.2 Validity of classical electron heat flux in the transition region
4.3 Breakdown of classical electron transport in the corona
4.4 Higher-order gyrotropic multi-fluid equations
4.5 Model velocity distributions from moment expansions
5 Plasma Waves and Microinstabilities
5.1 Plasma waves in the solar corona and solar wind
5.2 Dispersion relations and Landau and cyclotron resonance
5.3 Resonant wave-particle interactions
5.4 Alfvén-cyclotron waves and kinetic Alfvén waves
5.5 Non-Linear wave couplings and decays
6 Wave-Particle Interactions
6.1 Inelastic pitch-angle diffusion of ions in resonance with waves
6.2 Evidence for wave scattering effects on protons
6.3 The kinetic shell model
6.4 Regulation of the proton core temperature anisotropy
6.5 Origin and regulation of proton beams
6.6 Effects of wave couplings on linear beam instabilities
6.7 Regulation of the ion differential motion
6.8 Regulation of the electron heat flux
6.9 Plasma heating (cooling) by wave absorption (emission)
7 Kinetic Modelling of Coronal Expansion
7.1 Kinetics models of solar wind electrons and protons
7.2 Kinetic model of coronal ions
7.3 Kinetic model of coronal electrons
8 Summary and Conclusions
8.1 Summary
8.2 Conclusions and perspectives
9 Acknowledgements
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