
Abstract 
1 
Introduction 

1.1 
What does turbulence stand for? 

1.2 
Dynamics vs.
statistics 
2 
Equations and Phenomenology 

2.1 
The NavierStokes equation
and the Reynolds number 

2.2 
The coupling between a charged fluid and the
magnetic field 

2.3 
Scaling features of the equations 

2.4 
The nonlinear energy
cascade 

2.5 
The inhomogeneous case 

2.6 
Dynamical system approach to
turbulence 

2.7 
Shell models for turbulence cascade 

2.8 
The phenomenology
of fully developed turbulence: Fluidlike case 

2.9 
The phenomenology
of fully developed turbulence: Magneticallydominated case 

2.10 
Some
exact relationships 
3 
Early Observations of MHD Turbulence in the
Ecliptic 

3.1 
Turbulence in the ecliptic 

3.2 
Turbulence studied via Elsässer
variables 
4 
Observations of MHD Turbulence in the Polar Wind 

4.1 
Evolving
turbulence in the polar wind 

4.2 
Polar turbulence studied via Elsässer
variables 
5 
Numerical Simulations 

5.1 
Local production of Alfvénic
turbulence in the ecliptic 

5.2 
Local production of Alfvénic turbulence at
high latitude 
6 
Compressive Turbulence 

6.1 
On the nature of compressive
Turbulence 

6.2 
Compressive turbulence in the polar wind 

6.3 
The effect
of compressive phenomena on Alfvénic correlations 
7 
A Natural Wind
Tunnel 

7.1 
Scaling exponents of structure functions 

7.2 
Probability density
functions and selfsimilarity of fluctuations 

7.3 
What is intermittent in
the solar wind turbulence? The multifractal approach 

7.4 
Fragmentation
models for the energy transfer rate 

7.5 
A model for the departure
from selfsimilarity 

7.6 
Intermittency properties recovered via a shell
model 
8 
Intermittency Properties in the 3D Heliosphere: Taking a
Look at the Data 

8.1 
Structure functions 

8.2 
Probability distribution
functions 
9 
Turbulent Structures 

9.1 
Radial evolution of intermittency in the
ecliptic 

9.2 
Radial evolution of intermittency at high latitude 
10 
Conclusions
and Remarks 
11 
Acknowledgments 
12 
Appendix A: Some Characteristic Solar
Wind Parameters 
13 
Appendix B: Tools to Analyze MHD Turbulence in
Space Plasmas 

13.1 
Statistical description of MHD turbulence 

13.2 
Spectra
of the invariants in homogeneous turbulence 

13.3 
Introducing the
Elsässer variables 
14 
Appendix C: Wavelets as a Tool to Study
Intermittency 
15 
Appendix D: Reference Systems 

15.1 
Minimum variance
reference system 

15.2 
The mean field reference system 
16 
Appendix E: Onboard
Plasma and Magnetic Field Instrumentation 

16.1 
Plasma instrument: The
tophat 

16.2 
Measuring the velocity distribution function 

16.3 
Computing
the moments of the velocity distribution function 

16.4 
Field instrument: The
fluxgate magnetometer 
17 
Appendix F: Spacecraft and Datasets 

References 

Footnotes 

Figures 