Living Reviews in Solar Physics

"Large-Scale Dynamics of the Convection Zone and Tachocline"
Mark S. Miesch  

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1 A Turbulent Sun
2 Probing the Solar Interior
2.1 Global helioseismology
2.2 Local helioseismology
2.3 Surface and atmospheric observations
3 What Do We Observe?
3.1 Differential rotation of the solar envelope
3.2 The tachocline
3.3 Torsional oscillations and other temporal variations in the solar rotation
3.4 Meridional circulation
3.5 Giant cells, waves, and solar subsurface weather
3.6 The base of the convection zone
3.7 Thermal asphericity and subsurface magnetic fields
3.8 Solar magnetism
4 Fundamental Concepts
4.1 Governing equations
4.2 Energetics
4.3 Maintenance of differential rotation
4.4 Maintenance of meridional circulation
4.5 The solar dynamo
5 Modeling Solar Convection
5.1 The challenge
5.2 3D numerical simulations
5.3 Reduced models
5.4 Thin-shell approximations for the tachocline
6 What Do Global Simulations Tell Us about the Convection Zone?
6.1 Historical perspective
6.2 Convection structure
6.3 Differential rotation
6.4 Meridional circulation
6.5 Dynamo processes
6.6 Comparisons with mean-field theory
7 How Can We Do Better? (With Global Simulations)
7.1 Resolution
7.2 Subgrid-scale modeling
7.3 Boundary influences
8 Dynamics of the Tachocline and Overshoot Region
8.1 Convective penetration
8.2 Instabilities
8.3 Rotating, stratified turbulence
8.4 Internal waves
8.5 Tachocline confinement
9 Conclusion: Making Sense of the Observations
10 Acknowledgments
A Appendices
A.1 Notation
A.2 The anelastic equations
A.3 Energy conservation in the anelastic approximation
A.4 Angular momentum balance
A.5 Meridional circulation maintenance
A.6 Potential vorticity and Rossby waves
A.7 Gravity waves in a vertical shear flow
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