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3 What Do We Observe?

In the previous section we reviewed the types of observations which can potentially give us insight into what is occurring inside the Sun from a dynamical perspective. Here we survey the variety of phenomena which such observations have revealed. These results can be used to motivate, evaluate, and calibrate solar interior models. In other words, this is what we have to go on.


 3.1 Differential rotation of the solar envelope
 3.2 The tachocline
 3.3 Torsional oscillations and other temporal variations in the solar rotation
 3.4 Meridional circulation
 3.5 Giant cells, waves, and solar subsurface weather
 3.6 The base of the convection zone
 3.7 Thermal asphericity and subsurface magnetic fields
 3.8 Solar magnetism

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