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2 Probing the Solar Interior

We cannot observe the solar interior directly1. Rather, we must infer what is occurring below the surface from measurements made in the solar photosphere and above. In this section we review the types of observations which provide insight into solar interior dynamics and discuss what they can tell us, both in principle and in practice. Results from these observations will be discussed in Section 3. The most stringent observational constraints on dynamical models of the solar interior are provided by helioseismology, for which many excellent and much more comprehensive reviews exist; see for example Gizon and Birch (2005Jump To The Next Citation Point) in these volumes, and also Gough and Toomre (1991Jump To The Next Citation Point) and Christensen-Dalsgaard (2002Jump To The Next Citation Point). A more detailed discussion of the solar rotation profile in particular, including both observational results and modeling efforts, is given by Thompson et al. (2003Jump To The Next Citation Point). Many earlier reviews of solar rotation are also available, focusing primarily on surface measurements (Gilman, 1974Jump To The Next Citation PointHoward, 1984Jump To The Next Citation PointSchröter, 1985Jump To The Next Citation PointRüdiger, 1989Jump To The Next Citation PointBeck, 2000).


 2.1 Global helioseismology
 2.2 Local helioseismology
 2.3 Surface and atmospheric observations

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